Justice

in the City of Tulsa

Justice is an absolute necessity for the betterment of society and the building of a more equal Tulsa. Criminal justice and the inclusion of social justice therein is essential to the empowerment of the historically disadvantaged populations within Tulsa. Understanding how Tulsa’s justice system currently operates is crucial to determining how we can move forward towards greater equality. To help comprehend the multifaceted elements present within Tulsa’s justice initiatives, a wide array of data were analyzed.

The Justice theme focuses on race, gender, age and geography to measure inequalities.

The topics in the Justice theme are Arrests, Law Enforcement, and Safety and Violence.

You can see a snapshot of the indicators averaged in this theme in the chart to your right and then visit the sections below for more detail and additional findings.

Read our recent blogs about Justice…

Arrests

The indicators in the Arrests topic are:
  • Race & Juvenile Arrests
  • Race & Adult Arrests
  • Gender & Arrests
Oklahoma is often reported as having one of the highest incarceration rates in general, and the highest incarceration rate for women, specifically. While not all Arrests lead to incarceration, Arrests can still have lasting negative consequences for individuals. Even after an initial arrest, and regardless of subsequent incarceration, people often experience ostracization in the community, lapses in employment, and an inability to provide for their household. These events can act as precursors to larger disruptions that might ultimately lead to poverty or incarceration.

Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Arrests

  • Race & Juvenile Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the arrest rates per 1,000 population for Blacks to Whites age 0-17

    What are the Results?
    Black 22.3; White 7.1

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    3.153

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    33

    What Did We Find?
    Juveniles who have entered the judicial system often also face other economic and educational barriers. Black juveniles (22.3) are over three times as likely to be arrested as White juveniles (7.1). Native American (3.9) and Asian (1.2) juveniles have much lower rates of arrest.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

    Note:
    The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect the popular discourse surrounding
    this specific indicator.

  • Race & Adult Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the arrest rates per 1,000 population for Blacks to Whites age 18 and above

    What are the Results?
    Black 108.7; White 45.2

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.404

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    38

    What Did We Find?
    Blacks (108.7) are arrested over twice as often as Whites (45.2), with the rate of arrests for Native Americans (50.1) closely following. Asians have the lowest overall arrest rate (6.8).

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

    Note:
    The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect the popular discourse surrounding
    this specific indicator.

  • Gender & Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the rate of arrests per 1,000 population for women in Tulsa to the rate of arrests for women in the United States

    What are the Results?
    Tulsa 20.7; National 7.7

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.671

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    36

    What Did We Find?
    Oklahoma traditionally leads the nation in arrest rates. That fact is extraordinarily evident in the Tulsa female arrest rate (20.7) compared to the national female arrest rate (7.7). When women are arrested and detained, even briefly, additional negative outcomes may arise. They can miss work, become unable to care for their children, and then often rely on assistance from friends, relatives, and/or social services.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates; Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting: National Incident-Based Reporting System; U.S. Census Bureau, 2016, Population Estimates Program

Law Enforcement

The indicators in the Law Enforcement topic are:
  • Race & Tulsa Police Department Employees
  • Gender & Tulsa Police Department Employees
  • Race & Officer Use of Force
Two of these indicators measure how the demographics of the Tulsa Police Department relate to the demographics of the general Tulsa population. More equal minority and gender representation in the Tulsa Police Department may have beneficial effects to the communities they serve. The related demographic data could have implications with respect to the third indicator, Race & Officer Use of Force, and community relations between law enforcement and the communities they serve.

Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Law Enforcement

  • Race & Tulsa Police Department Employees

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the numbers of Tulsa Police Department employees per 1,000 for Whites to Hispanic / Latinos

    What are the Results?
    White 1.4; Hispanic / Latino 0.2

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    5.719

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    18

    What Did We Find?
    Hispanic / Latinos (0.2) have the lowest amount of representation at the Tulsa Police Department followed by the Asian (0.4) and Black (0.6) communities. Whites (1.4) and Native Americans (2.6) are better represented in the police department.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs Annual Report; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

  • Gender & Tulsa Police Department Employees

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the numbers of Tulsa Police Department employees per 1,000 population for males to females

    What are the Results?
    Males 1.6; Females 0.5

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    3.349

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    32

    What Did We Find?
    Females are underrepresented in the police department – a rate of 0.5 female officers per 1,000 compared to 1.6 male officers. Put another way, males make up 76% of the Tulsa Police Department’s workforce but 49% of the Tulsa population. Females make up 24% of the department’s workforce and 51% of the total population.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs Annual Report; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

  • Race & Officer Use of Force

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the number of Black victims of officer use of force to Hispanic / Latino victims of officer use of force per 1,000

    What are the Results?
    Black 2.6; Hispanic 0.5

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    5.03

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    20

    What Did We Find?
    Black individuals are over five times more likely (2.6) to be victims of officer use of force than Hispanic / Latino individuals (0.5) in Tulsa. Whites (1.0) are half as likely to experience officer use of force as Blacks. Native Americans (0.4) and Asians (0.2) also experienced far less officer use of force than Blacks.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs Annual Report; U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

Safety and Violence

The indicators in the Safety and Violence topic are:
  • Children & Abuse and Neglect
  • Race & Homicide Victimization
  • Geography & Calls to Domestic Violence Intervention Services (DVIS)
Disadvantaged groups often face issues of Safety and Violence at higher rates than others in the community. Children in Tulsa County experience abuse and neglect at higher rates than the national average. Additionally, there are racial disparities in homicide victimization and large disparities by region of the city in DVIS calls.

Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Safety and Violence

  • Children & Abuse and Neglect

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the Tulsa County to national rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports per 1,000 children age 0-17

    What are the Results?
    Tulsa County 12.4; National 9.2

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    1.348

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    68

    What Did We Find?
    Child abuse and neglect has lasting effects on the well-being of the victim. The rate of substantiated reports of child abuse and/or neglect in Tulsa County is 16.4 per 1,000 people, while the national rate is 9.2.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Oklahoma Department of Human Services, Annual Report FY2015; Child Welfare Information Gateway, Child Maltreatment 2015: Summary of Key Findings

    Note: Data for this indicator are for Tulsa County.

  • Race & Homicide Victimization

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the number of homicide victims per 1,000 for Blacks to Whites

    What are the Results?
    Black 0.5; White 0.2

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.705

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    36

    What Did We Find?
    Racial disparities are heavily evident in homicide victimization rates by race. Blacks (0.5) are two and a half times more likely to be victims of homicide compared to Whites (0.2). Asians (0.1) and Native Americans (0.2) are also less likely to be victims of a homicide than members of the Black community.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2016 1-Year Estimates

    Note: The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect the popular discourse surrounding this specific indicator.

  • Geography & Calls to Domestic Violence Intervention Services (DVIS)

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of the rates of calls to Domestic Violence Intervention Services (DVIS) per 1,000 population in North Tulsa to South Tulsa

    What are the Results?
    North Tulsa 11.7; South Tulsa 4.6

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.527

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    37

    What Did We Find?
    There are geographical disparities related to where domestic violence calls occur. Calls to DVIS are two and a half times more likely to come from North Tulsa (11.7) than from South Tulsa (4.6). Falling between are Midtown (8.1), East Tulsa (8.1), and West Tulsa (7.3).

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Domestic Violence Intervention Services (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 5-Year Estimates