Justice

in the City of Tulsa

Justice is an absolute necessity for the betterment of society, fairness, and the building of a more equitable Tulsa. We need to gain a clear understanding of how Tulsa’s justice system currently operates before we can move forward on new justice initiatives to achieve greater equality. The Justice theme analyzes data by race, gender, and geography to measure inequalities.

The Justice theme focuses on race, gender, age and geography to measure inequalities.

The topics in the Justice theme are Arrests, Law Enforcement, and Safety & Violence.

You can see a snapshot of the indicators averaged in this theme in the chart to your right and then visit the sections below for more detail and additional findings.

Read our recent blogs about Justice…

Arrests

The indicators in the Arrests topic are:
  • Race & Juvenile Arrests
  • Race & Adult Arrests
  • Gender & Arrests
Oklahoma is known to have one of the highest incarceration rates in not only the nation, but also the world, and the highest rate for women, specifically. While not all arrests lead to incarceration, arrests can still have lasting negative consequences for individuals. Even after an initial arrest, and regardless of any subsequent incarceration, people often experience ostracism from the community, lapses in employment, and an inability to provide for their families. These events can act as precursors to larger disruptions that might ultimately lead to poverty or future incarceration. Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Arrests

  • Race & Juvenile Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of arrest rates for Black to White juveniles per 1,000 population under age 18

    What are the Results?
    Black: 21.9; White: 6.6

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    3.327

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    32

    What Did We Find?
    Juveniles who have entered the judicial system often also face other economic and educational barriers. Black juveniles (21.9) are over three times as likely to be arrested as White juveniles (6.6). Native American and Asian juveniles have much lower rates of arrest.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

    Note:
    The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect popular discourse surrounding this specific indicator.

  • Race & Adult Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of arrest rates for Black to White adults per 1,000 population age 18 and above

    What are the Results?
    Black: 73.0; White: 35.8

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.041

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    40

    What Did We Find?
    Blacks (73.0) are arrested over twice as often as Whites (35.8), with the rate of arrests for Native Americans closely following. Asians have the lowest overall arrest rates.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

    Note:
    The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect the popular discourse surrounding this specific indicator.

  • Gender & Arrests

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of arrest rates for females in Tulsa to the United States per 1,000 female population

    What are the Results?
    Tulsa: 26.5; United States: 15.4

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    1.725

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    51

    What Did We Find?
    Oklahoma traditionally leads the nation in arrest rates. That fact is extraordinarily evident in the Tulsa female arrest rate (26.5) compared to the national female arrest rate (15.4). When women are arrested and detained, even briefly, additional negative outcomes may arise. They can miss work, become unable to care for their children, and then often rely on assistance from friends, relatives, and/or social services.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting: National Incident-Based Reporting System; U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

Law Enforcement

The indicators in the Law Enforcement topic are:
  • Race & Tulsa Police Department Employees
  • Gender & Tulsa Police Department Employees
  • Race & Officer Use of Force
Two of these indicators measure how the racial and ethnic demographics of the Tulsa Police Department (TPD) compare to the demographics of the general Tulsa population. More representative minority and gender representation in the police department may have beneficial impact on department-community relationships. The third indicator in this group looks at racial disparities in officer use of force. Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Law Enforcement

  • Race & Tulsa Police Department Employees

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of White to Hispanic/Latinx Tulsa Police Department employees per 1,000 population

    What are the Results?
    White: 1.4; Hispanic/Latinx: 0.2

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    6.253

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    15

    What Did We Find?
    Hispanic/Latinx (0.2) have the lowest amount of representation at the Tulsa Police Department. Whites (1.4) are better represented in the police department.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs 2016 & 2017 Annual Reports; U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

  • Gender & Tulsa Police Department Employees

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of male to female Tulsa Police Department (TPD) employees per 1,000 population

    What are the Results?
    Males: 1.6; Females: 0.4

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    3.629

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    30

    What Did We Find?
    Females are underrepresented in the police department – a rate of 0.4 female officers per 1,000 compared to 1.6 male officers. Males make up 77% of TPD’s workforce but only 48% of Tulsa’s population, while in contrast, females make up only 23% of TPD’s workforce and 52% of the city’s population.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs 2016 & 2017 Annual Reports; U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

  • Race & Officer Use of Force

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of Black to Hispanic/Latinx subjects of officer use of force per 1,000 population

    What are the Results?
    Black: 2.4; Hispanic/Latinx: 0.8

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    3.013

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    34

    What Did We Find?
    When calculated using population as the denominator, Blacks are three times as likely as both Whites and Hispanic/Latinx to experience officer use of force. When calculated using arrests as the denominator, Hispanic/Latinx become the most disadvantaged group, at a rate 2 ½ times that of Blacks and 3 ½ times that of Whites; using this methodology, Blacks are 50% more likely to experience use of force as Whites in Tulsa.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department, Internal Affairs 2016 & 2017 Annual Reports; U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

    Note
    A use of force rate can be calculated in a number of different ways. Equality Indicators calculates the rate using total population as the denominator (as shown above). The Tulsa Police Department uses arrest rates as the denominator. However when analyzing community-wide data, this can be misleading because it excludes contacts with police that do not result in arrest, and may skew results to mirror disparities in arrest rates. In alignment with the mission of Equality Indicators, using population as the denominator more accurately reflects the overall social and public health impact of use of force on the entire community. However, because the Tulsa Police Department calculates its use of force rates by using total number of arrests as the denominator, we are including those rates here for reference. In 2017, the rates of officer use of force per 1,000 arrests by race in Tulsa are:

    • Black: 33.1 incidents of use of force/1,000 Black arrests
    • Hispanic/Latinx: 80.1 incidents of use of force/1,000 Hispanic/Latinx arrests
    • White: 23.2 incidents of use of force/1,000 White arrests
    • Native American: 18.4 incidents of use of force/1,000 Native American arrests
    • Both arrests and use of force incidents for the Asian population are too small to be statistically valid.

Safety and Violence

The indicators in the Safety and Violence topic are:
  • Children & Abuse and Neglect
  • Race & Homicide Victimization
  • Geography & 911 Domestic Violence Calls
Disadvantaged groups often face issues of safety and violence at higher rates than others in the community. Children in Tulsa County experience abuse and neglect at higher rates than the national average. Additionally, there are racial disparities in homicide victimization and large disparities by region of the city in 911 domestic violence calls. Look at the chart to your right for an overall picture of this topic, and then look at each indicator and the scores in context for more detail and additional findings.

Indicators within Safety and Violence

  • Children & Abuse and Neglect

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect cases in Tulsa County to United States per 1,000 children age 0-17

    What are the Results?
    Tulsa County: 16.4; United States: 9.1

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
     1.802

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    48

    What Did We Find?
    Child abuse and neglect has lasting effects on the well-being of the victim. The rate of substantiated reports of child abuse and/or neglect in Tulsa County is 16.4 per 1,000 people, while the national rate is 9.1.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Oklahoma Department of Human Services; Annual Report FY2015 & 2016; Child Welfare Information Gateway, Child Maltreatment 2015 & 2016: Summary of Key Findings

    Note
    Data for this indicator are for Tulsa County

  • Race & Homicide Victimization

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of Black to White homicide victims per 1,000 population

    What are the Results?
    Black: 0.7; White: 0.1

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    4.969

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    21

    What Did We Find?
    Racial disparities are heavily evident in homicide victimization rates by race. Blacks (0.7) are more likely to be victims of homicide compared to Whites (0.1). Asians and Native Americans are also less likely to be victims of a homicide than members of the Black community.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates

    Note
    The comparison of Blacks to Whites was intentionally selected to reflect the contemporary discourse surrounding this specific indicator.

  • Geography & 911 Domestic Violence Calls

    What is Measured?
    Ratio of rates of domestic violence calls to 911 in north to south Tulsa per 1,000 population

    What are the Results?
    North Tulsa: 81.1; South Tulsa: 27.1

    What is the Indicator-Level Ratio?
    2.992

    What is the Indicator-Level Score?
    34

    What Did We Find?
    There are geographical disparities related to where domestic violence calls to 911 occur. Calls are more likely to come from North Tulsa (81.1) than from South Tulsa (27.1). Falling between are Midtown, East Tulsa and West Tulsa.

    What Data Source(s) were Used?
    Tulsa Police Department (by request); U.S. Census Bureau, 2016 & 2017 American Community Survey, 5-Year Estimates

    Note
    Domestic violence experts from DVIS in Tulsa informed us that calls to DVIS provide an incomplete and skewed depiction of persons experiencing domestic violence. On their recommendation, we replaced that definition from the 2018 report to domestic violence calls made to 911, expanding the data set beyond just those calls referred specifically to DVIS. With that revised definition came a revision in source of data from DVIS to the Tulsa Police Department.